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How do you call a process/phenomenon that can have multiple causes? For example, a disease can result from many factors (not necessarily their interplay but instead when different causes manifest in different age/genetic groups). I am seeking for a noun (if not, an adjective), primarily in the context of studying such a phenomenon (a "nightmare" doesn't work) - a "multiroot", a "bundle" but more scientific.

Example:

  • The mechanism of the process is still debated and may be a multiroot (=multiple mechanisms can operate simultaneously to cause the process).
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    It would really help if you could use it in a sentence. Just about everything has multiple causes.
    – Xanne
    Apr 12 '17 at 20:40
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    This Stroke Journal article article seems to use 'multicause' as a common premodifier. Apr 12 '17 at 21:12
  • According to scientists from Berkley, "shoelace knot failure" is triggered by a "complex interaction of forces": bbc.com/news/science-environment-39575454
    – user221615
    Apr 13 '17 at 4:26
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The word multifactorial seems appropriate for an adjective.

having or stemming from a number of different causes or influences: Some medical researchers regard cancer as a multifactorial disease.

http://www.dictionary.com/browse/multifactorial

Although often used in medicine, the definition is certainly broad enough to apply to other fields. It's also a technical term, so it seems like it could apply to the question as you described it.

Coming up with a noun is difficult. I keep thinking of manifold, but I can't find a definition that's abstract enough to apply to your request for a general term.

Per Wikipedia, one definition:

A manifold is a wide and/or bigger pipe, or channel, into which smaller pipes or channels lead.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manifold_(fluid_mechanics)

You could appropriate that term to describe systems or processes as well, but I can't say that it has a prescribed definition that applies precisely what you're looking for.

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Multidetermined and overdetermined are both adjectives.

multidetermined

Determined by multiple factors. (Wiktionary)

overdetermined

having more than one determining psychological factor : affording an outlet for more than a single wish or need an overdetermined dream symbol (MW)

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Contributory Causes appears to be the common term for those causes that, when taken together, describe multiple causes that taken individually would not produce a given result.

Under the heading of Necessary and Sufficient Causes, a Wikipedia article describes contributory causes as

A factor that is a contributory cause is one amongst several co-occurrent causes...In general, a factor that is a contributory cause is not sufficient, because it is by definition accompanied by other causes, which would not count as causes if it were sufficient. For the specific effect, a factor that is on some occasions a contributory cause might on some other occasions be sufficient, but on those other occasions it would not be merely contributory.

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