I vaguely recall coming across a term in one of my past world history classes that refers to an ideology which stipulates that monarchs are destined from birth to lead and that they descend from greatness, or that they are naturally superior to others.
The best terms I can come up with to describe what I'm thinking of are natural sovereignty and sovereign destiny, but neither of these bring up relevant information in google. I'm positive there's a technical term for this, but I can't remember what exactly it is.
Here's a relevant example in literature, taken from The Count of Monte Cristo, which may help:
But the kings of modern times, restrained by the limits of mere probability, have neither courage nor desire. They fear the ear that hears their orders, and the eye that scrutinizes their actions. Formerly they believed themselves sprung from Jupiter, and shielded by their birth; but nowadays they are not inviolable.