I want a compensation equal to the value of my time.
I was told by a native speaker that this is the correct expression (instead of saying equal to my time value), but I don't know why.
Could someone explain and give other examples?
"Time value" is a term often used in a technical sense in economics and finance to mean the discounting of the value of a future event with a certain value based upon an appropriate interest rate to determine its present value, usually as part of the phrase the "time value of money".
So, if you try to use the term "time value" in a context when you mean to say "the value of my time", you are likely to cause confusion. This is because someone may think that you are trying to adjust the values of your economic contribution based upon an interest rate to reflect the particular time at which your services are performed, rather than the more basic concept that you time has value and should be compensated.