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I read this article and found the following sentence. I am not sure whether it has a proper grammar but if it is, what part of speech is "Long"?

"Long an affordable island of calm amid the Bay Area’s superheated economy, Alviso is becoming one more bedroom community for the steady influx of workers drawn to Silicon Valley."

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    The grammar is fine, but long is neither verb nor adjective here. Try replacing it with something like previously, that should make the structure clearer for you (without changing the meaning too much). – Janus Bahs Jacquet Mar 28 '17 at 17:28
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    Long is an adverb – MikeJRamsey56 Mar 28 '17 at 17:55
  • "Long" is an adverb with a temporal meaning, "long time". – BillJ Mar 28 '17 at 18:23
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'Long' is being used here as an adverbial of an apposition. Temporal adverbials are often stripped down to a minimum. This 'long' means 'for a long time'. {Non '-ly' adverbials are typically rooted in a prepositional phrase.} The main verb tells that Alviso is becoming..., while the apposition {or appositive phrase} (which is everything before the comma) tells that Alviso is or was affordable..., and the adverbial in that phrase tells that it was affordable for a long time.

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