I'm writing a kinda book where it's common to use archaic pronouns like thee, thou and thy but I'm not sure if an American, a Canadian etc., will immediately know what these pronouns mean or they'll have to google it.
I learned English as a native language in India, and the only places I encountered these archaic pronouns were in older literature (Not just Shakespeare, but also Tagore, among others), and in many things related to religion.
Interestingly, many translations of religious texts from Sanskrit to English use many archaic pronouns. One reason for this could be that the translations are simply old, or that these pronouns are intentionally used to make it sound lofty.
Tha', thou, thy, certainly remain in every day usage in the North East of England amongst a proportion of people while "ye" remains in common (if informal) usage across Scotland and Ireland. The main distinction between these areas are the history of the language - Celtic areas generally retain "ye" while Danelaw generally retain "thou" (similarities between modern Norwegian and the Yorkshire dialect).
In the South East of England (as is the case with the Capital centres of most countries) they have absorbed "formal" dialectial discourse more quickly if not readily (what we think of as Modern English is a mix of London and Eastern dialects).
Though the archaic pronouns are no longer commonly used I think people may have easily come into contact with them trough education, religious ceremonies or Shakespear's plays for instance.
In standard modern English, thou continues to be used only in formal religious contexts, in literature that seeks to reproduce archaic language and in certain fixed phrases such as "fare thee well". For this reason, many associate the pronoun with solemnity or formality.
Many dialects have compensated for the lack of a singular/plural distinction caused by the disappearance of thou and ye through the creation of new plural pronouns or pronominals, such as yinz, yous and y'all or the colloquial you guys. Ye remains common in some parts of Ireland but these examples just given vary regionally and are usually restricted to colloquial speech.
The word "thou" is now largely archaic, having been replaced in almost all contexts by you. It is used in parts of Northern England and by Scots (/ðu/).