In normal everyday language use: following examples

exhibit a)Date of birth is after 13/2/2017

exhibit b)Date of birth is before 13/2/2017

does (a) mean 13/2/2017 is also included? (b) mean 13/2/2017 is also included?

  • 1
    It would be better to say 'on or after' to make it clearer. Commented Mar 17, 2017 at 8:38
  • 1
    They are normally exclusive, but they raise enough doubt to warrant clarification. It's even worse if you say "until 13/2/2017".
    – Lawrence
    Commented Mar 17, 2017 at 13:54
  • 1
    I don't see any doubt there. After means greater than; before means less than. If you mean greater than or equal to then use on or after. If you mean less than or equal to then use on or before.
    – Drew
    Commented Mar 17, 2017 at 15:45
  • 1
    I disagree with Lawrence and Drew here. They are normally inclusive, not exclusive, because the inclusive date is more memorable and of logically direct importance, and because as far as there is ambiguity it is more conservative to state the inclusive date. This also follows the pattern of "over 18" (e.g.) meaning 18 or over. / In the particular example here, if both were mentioned in the same instance, the latter would be inclusive because "2" is thought of as 2.0, otherwise it would be exclusive. / To Drew--there is doubt because they could have meant it in the more general sense.
    – user84614
    Commented Sep 10, 2022 at 3:26


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