How long has looney been used as an abbreviation of lunatic? Is it a recent addition or something substantially older?
The word loony has an entry in EtymOnline. It says:
1853, Amer.Eng., short for lunatic, but also infl. by loon (2), which is noted for its wild cry and method of escaping from danger. Slang loony bin "insane asylum" is from 1919. Looney left in ref. to holders of political views felt to be extreme is from 1977.
However, the OED disagrees and instead dates the term to 1872, from the short story "An Heiress of Red Dog" by Bret Harte. The story says,
You're that looney sort of chap that lives over yonder, ain't ye?
I'm more inclined to believe the OED (thank you Nicholas for bringing this up!), so with a date of 1872 the phrase is not substantially old.
Here's some references older than EtymOnline's 1853. I think they're are used as an abbreviation of lunatic.
A country looney, soft as boiled peas, went to a neighboring village one Sunday last autumn, partly on business and partly on pleasure. As Sunday is Cupid's market day, he, to his inexpressible joy, fell in with a charming damsel, ...
What's done is done, — and I am done
Brown by a thundering looney ;
By jove, it would be capital sport
If the dish'd could run off with the spooney.
Here's some references older than the OED's 1872, which are definitely abbreviations of lunatic.
Well, if that ain't looney ; I declare, girls are always getting some crochet or other in their heads," said Harry, contemptuously. " If they never get a worse oue than this," said Mrs. Lane, " there's not much harm done.
I told him he was a looney to suggest it, and went away seriously contemplating the idea of changing my banker.
Ha ! ha ! ha ! this Romeo, silly looney,
Has, on old Capulet's daughter, got quite spooney ;
And now to wed her he is nothing loth.
Ha ! ha ! he'll find my fingers in the broth.
"... Ho, ho, ho ! what a billy looney he must be to give that money for a hape ov ould rub- bidge ! Ha, ha, ha ! his wife wud give him beans when he took the tubs home, I 'll ingage." " There, there, that'll do, Biddy. You have laughed quite enough. ..."
Gazing on the intruder, whom he did not at first recognise, he faltered : " You looney ! ... Are you mad, Looney ?" "Blood and thunder! To be sure I am ; or I should be if I let you and Colonel O'Dywer have it all your own way. ...
... and my only regret is that I am not in a " Lunatic Asylum," for there I could " while the fearfully weary hours away," in watching the eccentric performances of individuals more " looney " than myself; but under the existing ...
We are sorry the author of the following story did'not send us his name, as some people are uncharitable enough to suggest that two- thirds of the tales of this kind are fabrications, and the remainder the product of " looney " fancies ...
History of a trip to the great Saginaw Valley, June, 1871, by invitation of the Fort Wayne, Muncie, and Cincinnati railroad, and with the co-operation of the Bee line, Fort Wayne, Jackson and Saginaw, and Jackson, Lansing and Saginaw railroad companies, 1871:
"Where's the wilderness?" I asked, as we made our way through smiling villages and luxuriant farms. What a looney I must have seemed to the engineer, who laughed, but made no talk.
Finally, here's an 1885 definition of luny.
Luny a. Unsound in mind ; crazy; loony. [Low. U. S.]
"Looney" is also a surname dating back into the 1400s in the Isle of Man and the 1500s in Ireland. The earliest it is found in the U.S. is 1724 in Chester County, PA, where Manxman Robert Looney and his sons are first found on the county tax roles (see "Most Distinguished Characters on the American Frontier: Robert Looney" by Madge Looney Crane and her son, Phillip Crane).
Also, I believe a family of 12 brothers arrived in Boston, MA, later in the 1700s and have, mostly, stayed in that area. Looneys across the U.S. are, then, more likely to be Manx in origin as those Loones moved into Virginia then exploded across the continent.
The meaning of the name has been said to be slightly different in Man than in Ireland, but the base is Celtic so is similar.
o Manx is said to be something akin to Captains of God's Army and, as late as the mid-1800s, all Looneys in Man were found residing on church properties.
o Irish is said to be more akin to Champions of the Army of God or Leaders of God's Army. Early Irish variants (or origins) were Luinigh and Loinghes. A later branch of the family moved to Scotland and became O'Looney.
Robert Looney gave his name to a creek (Looneys Mill Creek) that flows into the James River in western Virginia. He also founded Ft. Looney at that intersection (later renamed Ft. Fauquier during the Revolutionary War) and Looneys Ferry - the first crossing of the James River.
His son, Absalom, gave the name to a gap in the mountains west of Cumberland Gap called Looneys Gap.