'We have had no rain since January' ,said Ramu.

How do I write this in direct speech versus indirect speech.

Should it be had or had had.

I want to know how to write this in in indirect speech.


In your example you are referring to a single past event, and that event has a bearing on the present situation (there is still no rain) so you would use 'have had'.

We have had no rain since January.

"Have had" is using the word have in the present perfect tense,

we use the present perfect tense to describe an event from the past that has some connection to the present.

You can read more about the present perfect tense of have, in this related question here.

Whereas you would use 'had had' (the past perfect form of have) if you are referring to something that has already happened, and further want to refer to something that happened before it.

The above applies equally to indirect and direct speech, so the key is: -

  1. If you are referring to something that has happened in the past that has some bearing on the present you would use have had.

e.g. I have had a bad week (the bad week has a connection to your present experience).

  1. If you are referring to an event in the past and something that happened before that event you would use had had.

e.g. The pain stopped after she had had her medicine.

Also see below:

"has had" is used for the third person singular ( he/she/it).

Example: He has had dinner.

The past perfect form of have is had had (had + past participle form of have).

The past perfect tense is used when we are talking about the past and want to refer back to an earlier past time.

She felt marvelous after she had had a good night’s sleep.
They dismissed him before he had had a chance to apologize.

Sir,all my friends told me its answer will contain "had had" according to direct indirect rules please are u sure about your answer and can the word "intruder" mean stranger in any probability.

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