2

An article titled "Hulk Hogan lawyer tells SN: Gawker sex tape a 'massive' invasion of wrestler's privacy" has this:

Hogan's $100 million lawsuit against Gawker for posting a private video of him having sex with a friend's wife heads to trial at a Florida state court March 7. If Hogan (aka Terry Bollea) wins, Gawker could be ruined financially — or forced to sell.

Now fallen on hard times after his WWE glory days, Hogan is looking forward to his day in court with Florida jurors who might take a jaundiced eye toward a New York media outlet that traffics in gossip and rumors.

In the last sentence, the past participle "fallen" is a perfect use, and I think you can start the sentence with "having" as follows:

Having now fallen on hard times after his WWE glory days, Hogan is looking forward to...

Am I right?

Is this dropping of "having" commonplace? Can such a dropping be done to other verbs than "fall"?

If it can, I'd like to have some examples of a perfect use of a past participle (other than "fall") without the auxiliary verb "have".

  • That is not necessarily the "dropping" of having. It can be fallen used simply as an adjective. Compare the gone girl is still missing. There's no "dropped" having from that. – AmE speaker Feb 15 '17 at 5:52
  • @Clare "Fall on hard times" is a verb phrase, as shown here: dictionary.cambridge.org/us/dictionary/english/… So, I wonder how you could claim that "fallen" is not a verb (past participle) but an adjective. – JK2 Feb 15 '17 at 6:07
  • 2
    Participles (present or past) as a word, phrase and clause can serve as adjectives; nothing wrong in it. The gerunds (-ing form of verbs) serve as nouns, don't they? – mahmud koya Feb 15 '17 at 7:10
2

Let's look at a similar pair:

Now gorged on my blood, the mosquito stopped buzzing around my ear and settled on the wall.

This means now stuffed, the mosquito etc.

Having just gorged on my blood, the mosquito buzzed more excitedly around my ear.

This means that the mosquito just finished biting me (perhaps more than once), and now is buzzing more excitedly.

Do you see? The meaning is slightly different. Or maybe I should say the point of view.

  • 1
    Is your first example natural English? If so, I need you to answer my first question as to whether the dropping of "having" is commonplace and can be done to any verb. If not, how do I know if the dropping works for a certain verb or not? – JK2 Feb 15 '17 at 16:42
  • 1
    @JK2 - Well, I don't see it as dropping the having. Let's look at another example: "Having eaten my fill, I gave Mary my full attention." It would not work to say, "Eaten, I gave Mary my full attention." I see that according to the way you've been looking at this, it feels like "having" got dropped, but that's really not what's going on. – aparente001 Feb 16 '17 at 19:14
-1

From GrammarBank.com (http://www.grammarbank.com/participle-clauses.html)

Participle Clauses are used to shorten sentences.

Past Participle

Contrary to popular misuse, a past participle doesn't have a past meaning; but instead, it has a similar usage to present participle but in passive form.

The little girl was taken to the nearest hospital after she was attacked by a dog.

Attacked by a dog, the little girl was taken to the nearest hospital.

The museum, which was built in 1953, needs renovation.

Built in 1953, the museum needs renovation.

The new night club, which is located on the beach side, attracts the attention of all ages.

Located on the beach side, the new night club attracts the attention of all ages.

Perfect Participle

Indicates an action that happens long before the action in the main clause.

After he had spent ten years in Italy, he could speak Italian fluently.

Having spent ten years in Italy, he could speak Italian fluently.

Because Tom had attended this course before, he knew what to expect.

Having attended this course before, Tom knew what to expect.

Note: to get passive form in perfect participle, we add "been" after "having".

Because he had been fired, he didn't attend the meeting.

Having been fired, he didn't attend the meeting.

Because he hadn't been invited to the wedding, he didn't come.

Not having been invited to the wedding, he didn't come.

The following example sentences are from Michael Swan's Practical English Usage - (Participles):

Served with milk and sugar, it makes a delicious breakfast.

Used economically, one tin will last for six weeks.

Hands held high, the dancers circle to the right.

Rejected by all his friends, he decided to become a monk.

  • 1
    What's the point of listing all these examples that seem irrelevant to the question? – JK2 Feb 15 '17 at 16:44

Your Answer

By clicking “Post Your Answer”, you agree to our terms of service, privacy policy and cookie policy

Not the answer you're looking for? Browse other questions tagged or ask your own question.