This is the text :

What AI is:

Artificial Intelligence (AI) is the study of intelligent behaviour (in humans, animals, and machines) and the attempt to find ways in which such behaviour could be engineered in any type of artefact. It is one of the most difficult and arguably the most exciting enterprise ever undertaken by humanity. The difficulty of the enterprise may not be obvious at first, but it has been painfully learned.

Which thing has been painfully learned? Is it the the enterprise or the difficulty ?

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    Apparently English—or at least writing coherent sentences—is what has been "painfully learned," if at all. What the author obviously means to say is that what has been painfully learned is the creation of artificial intelligence, though you wouldn't know it from the final sentence in that passage. – Robusto Feb 8 '17 at 2:20

It is the difficulty which has been painfully learned, more specifically the difficulty involved in undertaking this enterprise.


This is badly written. (By the way, you should give the source of the quote, and ideally, a link.) But here's what I think the author meant:

It might not be obvious at first just how difficult the enterprise is. Coming to understand just how difficult it is has been a painful process.

The "enterprise" is studying intelligent behavior in humans, animals and machines, and attempting to find ways in which such behavior could be engineered in any type of artefact. (Whatever the heck he means by that.)

So, how badly is it written? Well, it's hard to figure out what he's referring to, and it's pompous.

I hope you find a better written book on your topic.

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