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Example 1: It is important to remember that noun clauses are tricky.

Textbook: Noun clauses follow adjectives in the It is construction.
Me: The noun clause is the subject of this sentence, delayed by It is.
Student: But why isn't it the object of "to remember"?
Me: "To remember" isn't a verb; it is an adjective complement.
Student: What?
Me: Me, hmmmm. Is that right? Why don't I feel clearer about this?

Example 2: I would like to know how I should explain that to a student.

Me: This noun clause is the object of "would like to know" and again it follows an infinitive, but what do I call "would like to know" -- a verb phrase?

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Ex 1. It is important [to remember that noun clauses are tricky].

This is an extraposition construction where the subject is the dummy pronoun "it". The bracketed subordinate clause "to remember that noun clauses are tricky" is called the extraposed subject and the adjective phrase "important" is the predicative complement of "be" (i.e. "is"). Note that the extraposed subject is not a kind of subject; it's in extraposed position, outside the verb phrase, and not part of the predicative complement. It corresponds to the subject of the basic version, i.e. without extraposition, [To remember that noun clauses are tricky] is important. What is claimed to be important is the need to remember that noun clauses are tricky.

Ex 2. I would like to know [how I should explain that to a student]

The bracketed expression is an interrogative content clause (embedded question) functioning as complement (not object) of "know". The meaning can be glossed as:

"I would like to know the answer to the question 'How should I explain that to a student?"'

Edit: you asked about the expression "would like to know". It's a verb phrase as the initial part of predicate of the matrix clause in which "I" is subject.

  • @eappel The explanation I have given in my answer above meets with the normal accepted analysis of sentences like the ones you cited. Delayed subject is nonsense; it's obvious that "it" is the subject because it inverts with the verb to form a question: Is it important to remember that noun clauses are tricky? Do you understand that? – BillJ Feb 7 '17 at 8:38
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This is more of an extended comment than an answer.

Example 1: It is important to remember that noun clauses are tricky.

  • It is the subject of the sentence. It's called a dummy it, because there's no grammatical antecedent.
  • to remember is an infinitive; its lexical class is verb. You can tell because it's formed by the word to and the plain form of the verb. It's a nonfinite verb because it doesn't carry tense,...
  • ...but like any transitive verb, it takes an object. In this case, the thing to be remembered, the trickiness of noun clauses.
  • The functional description of the entire infinitival clause (to remember plus its object) -- in other words, its use in the sentence -- is complement to the adjective important.
  • Note that noun clauses appear as complements to adjectives when the latter aren't attributive. It has nothing to do with the dummy it construction. Consider

    Call me clever to remember that noun clauses are tricky

As is usual, things are easier when you separate the lexical class of a word and its function in a sentence.

Example 2: I would like to know how I should explain that to a student.

  • would like is the main verb of the sentence formed by the modal would, which takes the plain form of the verb after it.
  • to know is another infinitive, which takes as its object the noun clause about explanation.
  • The entire infinitival clause (infinitive + object) is itself the direct of object of the main verb.

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