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what does 'by direction' expression mean? It is often put at the end of a document under names/signatures.

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    To my knowledge, it means that the person signing normally doesn't have the authority to sign. The "by direction" signifies they have been given permission to sign on behalf of someone who does have the authority; the correct authority has directed them to sign on his/her behalf. – Hank Jan 31 '17 at 17:41
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    What @Hank said. The same use as "for the commander" in military notices; some person of lesser authority, authoring on behalf, and with permission, of the higher authority. – Davo Jan 31 '17 at 18:16
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It means that the person who has signed has done so under the direction of someone else (presumably his senior or a higher authority).

  • With the disclaimer that I am signing for X, I can sign the name X (not my own), although it will not match X's normal signature. That way, there is full disclosure and no misunderstanding. – Yosef Baskin Jan 31 '17 at 19:44

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