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I read a lot of books to improve my english but sometimes I encounter some structures that are not found easily on learning webpages. First, I want to learn forms of being+V3(v3 stands for past participle form of verbs) except by passive voice. For example, I can't deduce the meaning of the sentence.

  • Class House doesn’t enjoy any advantages by being defined in the same package or being a derived class.

Second, I again really can't deduce meaning of sentences that use having+v3 structure except by one that is at the beginning of a sentence. (i.e. having worked - After he has worked) What are the forms of having+v3 and being+v3 except by I have just mentioned exceptions and short form of adjective clause.

Example sentences that I can't understand:

  • It’s important to understand that there’s a difference between the practical knowledge of having worked with Java and the knowledge required to pass this certification exam.
  • First, answer this question: do you remember hav ing known more than one Amit, Paul, Anu, or John in your life?
  • Please define V3 and give examples, as that is not a grammatical or linguistic term. It looks like a term used by some textbook or website. – green_ideas Jan 11 '17 at 13:45
  • I have edited. v3 stands for past participle form of verbs @Clare – Hax Jan 11 '17 at 13:48
  • For clarity, could you please state your question? You've noted some difficulties you're having with the language, but I don't see a specific question to answer. What in particular are you finding hard to understand about the past participle when it appears somewhere other than at the start of a sentence? Please phrase your request as a question. – Lawrence Jul 24 '17 at 5:25
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"Past participle" is unfortunate terminology, because it is ambiguous between meaning passive participle (after passive "be") and perfect participle (after auxiliary "have"). All the same, that's the traditional term. Usually these two participles have the same form in "-ed", or "-en", or maybe always, but neither expresses a past tense.

The "-ing" suffixes in your examples are from the conversion of a sentence into a noun phrase; nominalization, that is. For instance, "do you remember having known more than one" is from "do you remember [you knew more than one]", where the past tense of "knew" is converted to perfect "have" in a non-finite clause, and the "-ing" converts that "have" into a gerund.

  • What should I do to recognize them? On which subjects should I study or reinforce? – Hax Jan 11 '17 at 15:16

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