"After failing the vocab test, they drowned themselves in jolly ranchers"
Part 1 of Question
is "after failing the vocab test" a gerund phrase?
If it is why? how do you identify whether it is a gerund phrase? Because someone told me it was but I dont think it acts as a noun
Part 2 of question
is "failing the vocab test" a prepositional phrase?
" While preparing for the speech, Joe couldn’t help but worry about his entrance. "
is "While preparing for the speech" a gerund phrase?
Because I know that gerund has to be a verb acting as a noun.
But If we have the word "while" before something, doesnt the next string of words have to be a verb?
Hoping for a miracle, the doctors continued the surgery.
What does the particpial phrase "Hoping for a miracle" modify?