You can see those everywhere, any kinds of statistics like average temperature by month or average income by years of education, essentially any data that is a list of progressive x values corresponding to y values. Example:
There are a few words that I know that would fit this data, for example "polygon" and "graph" but that is like calling a cat an animal - technically correct but not very specific. Polygons and graphs have no restrictions on whether any of their dimensions are progressive or even how many other data nodes a single node is connected to.
Then there is "chart" but AFAIK this word refers to a visual representation of some data and is even more vague.
Does anybody know of a word that would fit only this sort of data specifically?