As it happened, 'anti-turnpikeism' appeared in The Nonconformist (issue 3, p 446) in 1843. The article containing it, by Edward Miall (link may be paywalled), was later reproduced in the Times (London), and then picked up and reprinted, unattributed, by Bradford Observer, West Yorkshire, England (Thursday 29 June 1843; link paywalled).
Here is a less-than representative section of the text:
In short, it would seem that the assertion of the supremacy of the laws is all nonsense; the potentiality of anti-turnpikeism is proclaimed; our lady the Queen hides her diminished head before our lady Becca—the former is only Victoria Regina; tbe latter is Regina Rebecca, the most puissante of sovereigns.
(op. cit., bold emphasis mine)
This use, in turn, grew out of antiturnpike arguments recorded as early as 1787 in the popular press. Here I include an excerpt from a 1787 letter signed "ANTI-TURNPIKE", which was the first instance of the use of 'anti-turnpike' I was able to turn up (without leaving my chair):
I give great credit to Mercator for the polite and liberal manner in which he expresses his sentiments, in your last paper. His arguments do not, however, carry conviction to my mind: I must therefore trouble you with a few observations on the same subject. Were I persuaded, that either the farmer or tradesman would be benefited by a turnpike-road between Bury and Thetford, or even that it were necessary to the safety of travellers of any other description, I assure you my feeble opposition should cease; but never with my consent, shall the most trifling tax be laid on the public for the profit of the publican, or in order that my Lord A. or Mr. B may sleep sounder in their equipages, or that they may get to London half an hour sooner than they otherwise could do. Can Mercator point out any part of the road in question, which requires an unusual strength of team? Can he shew any swamps to be filled up, any steep hills to be levelled, any waters that require from their depth and rapidity, a bridge to thrown over them? If he can, the interference of Parliament may be necessary; the parishes would be unequal to the expence. But this is not the case—the whole of the road is, I assert, at present, sufficiently good for every purpose of the farmer; and, were the quarters cut down, and a few white posts put up, would be perfectly safe for the highest phaeton that folly and fashion ever joined to build. Were Mercator aware of the great expence the parishes of Fornham and Ingham have been at on the account of this road, and how good their part of it is, he would not I am sure, think it fair to burthen them with a turnpike, because another parish has not done their duty; particularly were he to know, that it is the intention of the magistrates to make use, without delay, of the power the law has placed in their hands, for the evil complained of. One argument in Mercator’s letter does, I confess, appear very extraordinary. If I understood him right, he is a friend to the proposed turnpike-road, because by it, the price of corn would be increased at Bury market. It is too true, that this has been the consequence all over the kingdom of turnpike-roads; and, therefore, I consider them as nuisances, injurious to the poor, though convenient to the rich. Would to Heaven, that access to the capital were now as difficult as in those good old hospitable times, when if a man, who lived 90 miles from London, was obliged to go thither, he first made his will before he undertook so a dangerous journey.
Trusting to your impartiality for the insertion of this, as soon as possible,
I am Sir, your’s.
Bury and Norwich Post, Suffolk, England, Wednesday 09 May 1787, p 2 (paywalled link).
Similar anti-turnpikeism continued to be mentioned in the popular press throughout the 19th and into the first decade of the 20th century. From these records, with their references to "anti-turnpike agitation", "anti-turnpike brigade", "anti-turnpike riots", and "anti-turnpike mob", it is evident that anti-turnpike sentiment was quite violent, especially around 1843 (see the instance of 'anti-turnpikeism' first quoted). It is noted in 1903, with historical reference, as a form of 'Rebeccaism':
... a manifestation of that species of lawlessness which goes by the name of Rebeccaism, which first broke out in Wales in 1843 during the anti-turnpike agitation, and of which there are still recrudescences when the people of any particular district suffer under any real or imaginary grievance.
Nottingham Evening Post, Nottinghamshire, England, 01 January 1903, p 5 (paywalled link).
Note that 'anti-turnpikism' does appear in OED, where it is attested by the 1843 quote from Miall. There also (OED) appears 'Rebeccaism', which from 'Rebeccaite' at first appears to denote a practitioner of the lawless and wanton spearing of salmon (a sense I derived from the quotes in OED attesting 'Rebeccaite'), but which on further examination of the source in 'Rebecca' (n.) denotes
The (notional) leader of a movement whose supporters attacked and demolished turnpike toll gates chiefly in south and west Wales in the period between 1839–44 in protest at high tolls; (also) a member of such a group of protesters. In later use applied to similar groups carrying out other acts of social protest, esp. organized salmon-poaching raids.
Although mostly male, the leaders of such groups frequently disguised themselves in women's clothing, blackening their faces, and sometimes also wearing horsehair wigs or beards.
["Rebecca, n.". OED Online. December 2016. Oxford University Press. http://www.oed.com/view/Entry/159182 (accessed February 26, 2017).]