Which word is appropriate to use in the following sentence, have or has?

Production and incorporation of the polymeric materials as modern materials in the civil engineering [have or has] been widespread.

1 Answer 1


This is somewhat complicated, actually. I'm inclined to use has here.

A question about a similar situation, -ing nouns and verb agreement, has unfortunately been closed. The answer to the supposed duplicate, My apples and orange are/is wrong?, tells us that subjects that consist of two noun phrases coordinated by "and" should have plural verb agreement.

However, my intuition is that in cases like this, "production and incorporation" is actually treated as a singular noun phrase. Perhaps the fact that both parts of "production and incorporation" are modified by "of the polymeric materials as modern materials in the civil engineering" is evidence for this, although I'm not sure.

I'll try to find more to back this up than just my intuition. For now, I've found:

I also found many examples of "production and distribution has":

This last one is particularly strong evidence because some editor seems to have consciously decided that the singular "has" is better than the plural "have" in this context: the Fifth Edition used "Theatrical film production and distribution have evolved into a multifaceted business."


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