I was reading editorial in Times Of India and read these two lines:

This October as many as 3.2 million Indian debit cards were reported to have been compromised in a big breach of financial data. Even as that investigation continues, demonetisation has sent e-banking and e-wallets on the up and up with inadequate digital literacy to cope with this shift.

I don't understand following lines:

  • What does have been compromised mean actually ?
  • The writer talks about some investigation. What is the investigation ?

The article is titled 'Check cyber crime', dated 13 December 2016 in The Times of India.

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Have been compromised in this context means that unauthorized persons have been able to access debit card information. The article doesn't say what the result is, but that usually means that these persons are able to charge purchases to the cards, which are not theirs and which they don't have permission to use.

Here's the context for your second question:

This October as many as 3.2 million Indian debit cards were reported to have been compromised in a big breach of financial data. Even as that investigation continues,....

As you can see, there is no investigation mentioned, so the determinative that has no antecedent. This is likely an error for

Even as the investigation into that continues,....

Now, that refers to "breach of financial data" in the previous sentence.

  • Even as that investigation continues is far too familiar a construction to me for it to be an error, I think it's a piece of conventional journalistic shorthand meaning, as you say even as the investigation into that situation continues. The Times of India is Indian owned but was founded by the British under the Raj so will be influenced by the British press traditions. I imagine that many of its journalistic and editorial staff will have been trained by British journalists or have worked in the UK and so are likely to have picked up British conventions in their writing. – BoldBen Dec 13 '16 at 6:33
  • Thnanks. Also, please explain 'in a big breach of financial data' means ? – Ayush Dec 13 '16 at 7:00
  • A breach is a gap, usually in defensive works, say a wall or a rampart. So breach has come to mean a break-in to a protected, defended area. So here someone found a gap in the security systems of the banks and broke into the financial data they thought were protected. – deadrat Dec 13 '16 at 8:22
  • @BoldBen It's fine syntactically, but it's a semantic error to have that particular that without an antecedent. That investigation means the investigation previously mentioned, and there's no mention of an investigation. It's far more likely that this is an editing error than it is some "journalistic shorthand" that everybody at the ToI learned during the Raj. How long do you think it's been since the Raj was in business? – deadrat Dec 13 '16 at 8:28
  • @deadrat Please tell me how the debit cards get compromised if there is a breach in financial data? How is financial data related to cards getting compromised. – Ayush Dec 13 '16 at 11:37

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