One of my references is an audio file. It feels funny to say

bla bla bla (see such-and-so audio recordings).

Is there some Latin I could use in place of "see"?

  • 1
    The abbreviation "Cf." is Latin for "confer" which means "compare" and is a different signal than "see" but not entirely different. "e.g." means "for example" and "i.e." means "in other words." While "id." or "ibid" means the same source as previously referred to, and "passim" means used throughout the work. "Accord" has a close meaning to "see" and is formal but not latin. These kinds of words are called citation signals. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Citation_signal Also consider "viz" en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Viz.
    – ohwilleke
    Nov 15, 2016 at 5:36
  • 2
    Check out <english.stackexchange.com/questions/88059/…>. You might want to consider ref., which is an abbreviation for reference. Nov 15, 2016 at 5:38
  • @RichardKayser - Do I use italics or regular text? Nov 15, 2016 at 6:15
  • Regular text according to thefreedictionary.com/ref. There must be a better source, but I couldn't readily find a better one. Have a good night. Nov 15, 2016 at 6:27
  • There's this one: oxfordlearnersdictionaries.com/us/definition/english/ref_3 It's ambiguous with regard to plain text or italics, but I think it points in the direction of plain text. Unfortunately, examples are usually in italics. Nov 15, 2016 at 6:36

1 Answer 1



See; consult (used as an instruction in a text to refer the reader to a specified passage, book, author, etc., for further information):

'vide the comments cited in Schlosser'

'Indeed, she was no mean composer herself, vide her full-length opera The Smugglers of Penzance.'

Oxford dictionary, which includes other example uses

A lot of English readers may not know what vide means, but you did ask for a Latin word. It can be abbreviated as v. according to the Chicago Manual of Style. Meanwhile Cf literally and traditionally means to compare, not to consult.

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