What is the history of "X is dead. Long live X"?
I feel like I'm missing out on a joke.
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Typically it's used in the phrase, "Le Roi est mort, vive le Roi!" or "The King is dead, long live the King" This means that the (previous) king is dead and we wish the (new) king a long life. It's also to indicate that there is never a time without a king.
The examples you list typically mean something like, "[language] was bad, now [language] has been improved, or is being used in a totally new way."
The original phrase is
The King is dead. Long live the King!
According to wikipedia:
The original phrase was translated from the French Le Roi est mort, vive le Roi!, which was first declared upon the coronation of Charles VII following the death of his father Charles VI in 1422.
The phrase arose from the law of le mort saisit le vif—that the transfer of sovereignty occurs instantaneously upon the moment of death of the previous monarch. "The King is dead" is the announcement of a monarch who has just died. "Long live the King!" refers to the heir who immediately succeeds to a throne upon the death of the preceding monarch.
In these modern variations, the apparently contradictory phrase is used as an attention-grabbing headline to appeal to the reader's curiosity.
Something the other answers here are missing is the bitter irony of the phrase. The exclamation "Long live the King!" is used to suggest that it would be a horrible tragedy if the King were to die. The implication here is that the King is such a good King that the people want him to live a long life so as to continue such a good rule.
Then the King dies and another King arrives and... nothing changes. The people immediately begin wishing the new King long life which sort of implies that, as much as the tragedy of a King's death is horrible, the old King was just as good as the next is expected to be. "The King is dead. Long live the King!"
Its use with regards to modern technology doesn't really fulfill this irony well, however, and it is more often used to imply that as one use of a technology dies the technology will survive in another form. People often call out that one technology or another is "dead" and so this phrase finds a use keying into the idea that something can "die" and then survive in another way or form. Likewise, some technologies are notoriously stubborn and refuse to go away no matter how much we all want them to fade into the history books. (coughCOBOLcough)
Although I commented I thought I'd raise the point because it is relevant to the answer.
The phrase is about immortality.
"The king is dead. Long live the king." symbolises the (suggested) immortality of the throne through continuous mortal kings.
It is ironic play on the concept of death. A man may die, but an idea/institution lives on.
The greater irony I think is that it was the French that then removed the same monarchy that coined the phrase.
It (almost certainly) originated as "The king is dead. Long live the King." Originally, it was just pointing out that the king had died, and upon his death, his heir had become the new king1.
Using the phrase to refer to exactly the same thing/person in both instances probably started out as a play on words ("The once and Future King", so to speak), but seems to have degenerated into use by people who don't appear to have any clue of the original phrase or what it meant.
1Though it wasn't necessarily nearly that simple -- quite a few countries had fairly complex laws about succession, and in a fair number of cases, the king was actually elected from a number of eligible candidates by a group of noble-men and such. Oddly, that meeting/group was often called a "diet" -- it might be an interesting follow-on whether that's etymologically related to the modern use of the word.
I think I read somewhere that the original phrase was "The King is Dead! Long live the King!"
Perhaps an analogy would best explain it: Imagine, if you will, a wife that screamed at her husband, "You're an idiot, and I really can't stand to be around you! This marriage is over!" and when she opened the door to walk out, she saw some guys outside that were drinking, playing with dog crap, pissing in bushes, etc... prompting her to shut the door immediately and change her mind: "Just kidding! Teehee! Love you, babe! You're the best!"
I think the phrase is a twist on "The King is dead! Long live the King!" which was said when a king died, and was then replaced by the next King.
I believe the play on words is that, despite any belief or reality about the status, that it continues on.
This is much like the original saying "The King is Dead! Long live the King!" While the king may have died, the king lives on in his heir, who throughout much of history shared the king's name, essentially prolonging the rule of the original king. So despite the claimed death of the king, the king lives on.
I believe there may be a bit more to it. The people live under a King who cannot be questioned. In a moment of relief they yell, "The King is dead," as if they are really saying "The Tyrant is dead!"
However, immediately, they are under the authority of a new King who would surely destroy them if he thought they were enemies so they yell out again, "Long live the king," in an effort to voice their allegiance to the new king.
Maybe the Real Message Contains More
Which implies, "They would have to be better (they cannot get any worse)."
When, in fact, everyone knows it will be no better (but there is at least hope) and very well may be worse (but we all hope not).