Articles provide a nuance to english communication that is absent without them. The names of the articles, "definite" and "indefinite" describe the difference: "The aim of something" would refer to the principle or main aim of something, whereas "An aim of something" would refer to one of perhaps many aims of something.
A native speaker uses articles without thinking because they are part of the language. It would be hard to drop them without practice.
Non native speakers, coming from a language like Chinese (which lacks articles in the sense we understand them), often omit articles in their speech which is heard as broken or simplified English. A native English listener can infer which articles are missing and interpret the meaning of the speech, but can become distracted from the meaning of the speech in the process or, worse, misinterpret the intelligence of the speaker.
Having said that, if you have a heavy accent of any kind (Russian, Chinese or Yorkshire even), most listeners will make allowances for dropped articles.