I am looking for a word which describes meaningless exchanges in conversation e.g. "How are you doing?" "Good, good, you?" "Good." "See you later." That is, in the asking of "How are you?" there is no expectation to find out how the person is actually doing - a perfunctory "good" is anticipated and expected. That is, passing exchanges where little to nothing is actually said or inquired.
There is actually a word that describes precisely this type of chitchat: you're looking for the word phatic.
phat·ic /ˈfatik/ adj.
denoting or relating to language used for general purposes of social interaction, rather than to convey information or ask questions. Utterances such as hello, how are you? and nice morning, isn't it? are phatic.
(From Oxford Dictionaries Online, my emphasis)
What you call meaningless conversation is a chapter in "social conventions".
A convention is a set of agreed, stipulated, or generally accepted standards, norms, social norms, or criteria, often taking the form of a custom. In a social context, a convention may retain the character of an "unwritten law" of custom (for example, the manner in which people greet each other, such as by shaking each other's hands). Wikipedia
des·ul·to·ry ˈdesəlˌtôrē/Submit adjective lacking a plan, purpose, or enthusiasm. "a few people were left, dancing in a desultory fashion" synonyms: casual, cursory, superficial, token, perfunctory, half-hearted, lukewarm; More (of conversation or speech) going constantly from one subject to another in a halfhearted way; unfocused. "the desultory conversation faded"
ban•ter (ˈbæn tər) n. 1. an exchange of light, playful remarks; good-natured raillery. v.t. 2. to address with banter; chaff. v.i. 3. to use banter.
If the banter is fairly banal then it can be referred to as meaningless banter