You could just use the word 'draw':
Have you drawn anything today?
It's unreasonable to assume that an artist would take your question literally and leave it there.
Imagine you asked the above question, and the artist answered 'no' because he had only painted that day, instead of drawn, and then said nothing else. You would have to be pretty pedantic to give an answer like that, given the context.
It's far more likely that the artist would reply something along the lines of this, instead:
'No, but I did do a painting [...]'
Certainly, that's the simplest way to ask the question concisely (assuming that most artists aren't pedantic or prickly about word choice).