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I was wondering which one is grammatically correct between "Why didn't (or did not) somebody do something?" and "Why did somebody not do something?"

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Either works from a grammatical perspective, but usually a native speaker would say

Why didn't somebody do something?

The other way is not wrong.

Why did somebody not do something?

Putting the not outside of the normal order causes more emphasis to be placed upon it, a rhetorical figure known as anastrophe. From NOAD:

anastrophe |əˈnastrəfē| noun Rhetoric
the inversion of the usual order of words or clauses.

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  • Thanks! Do people say "Why did not somebody do something?" – Tim Jul 23 '11 at 2:08
  • @Tim: Not normally. But there's no reason they couldn't — again, for special emphasis. If the rest of their English were poor, however, listeners would assume it was a mistake. – Robusto Jul 23 '11 at 3:00
  • @Tim: that would be strained. In modern English "not" does not usually come between the preposed verb and its subject, though the clitic "n't" does. So "did not he" is definitely archaic, "did he not" current but somewhat formal, and "didn't he" normal. – Colin Fine Jul 24 '11 at 0:35

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