I was wondering if I have to place a comma before and after "and thus". Usually, thus is followed by a comma, but in this sentence, i think one comma before it is enough. Right?

"accepted theories can provide satisfactory results, and thus, experiments can be avoided "


This sentence has two independent clauses. They are connected by "and" with a comma before it. The "and" and the comma are correct. However, adding a comma after "thus" is not correct because it is an adverb; the comma after it is not necessary.

The sentence is fine this way:

"Accepted theories can provide satisfactory results, and thus experiments can be avoided."

If "thus" is used as a conjunctive adverb (without "and"), a semi-colon and a comma are necessary. This version of your sentence is also correct:

"Accepted theories can provide satisfactory results; thus, experiments can be avoided."

Both of these sentences are clearer than your sentence that has the comma after "thus."

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  • 1
    One need not use a comma for every break either when reading or verbalizing. The only problem with your answer is that a comma may be used after "thus," but it's not necessary. – Stu W Sep 11 '16 at 22:03
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    @StuW--A comma after "thus" would trigger a comma after "and" because it joins two clauses: " . . . .can provide satisfactory results, and, thus, experiments can be avoided." This also shows that "thus" is unnecessary: ". . . .can provide satisfactory results, and experiments can be avoided. "Thus" means "therefore" in this context; "thus" emphasizes that the second condition (avoiding experiments) occurs when the first condition (relying on accepted theories) exists. – Maldives Oct 10 '16 at 19:00
  • Is it necessary to have the comma before and? – BeniBela Dec 18 '19 at 12:45

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