The issue that I am having with my assimilation of knowledge of English grammar is not so much the actual content itself, but how the content is structured. You hear alot of words thrown around, such as nouns, verbs and adjectives, modifiers, are propositions, Gerunds, declaratives, interrogatives, and 1000 more. My initial plan was to learn these terms almost at random because I thought it would be obvious what it's connection would be, I was extremely wrong. So I ended up taking some courses, and it seems to give some structure to all these terms, however, its only partial and there are many gaps that need to be filled.

So basically I want some sort of hierarchy, starts with morphemes at one end, sentences in the other, and that shows the types of entities (like words) at the respective level.

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    You have to choose a school of linguistics or grammar. That said, you might want to get into syntax trees: allthingslinguistic.com/tagged/how-to-draw-syntax-trees The hierarchy does not start with morphemes for an English learner. You're better off starting with whole words. If you're into semantics, then morphemes become relevant but not as a "hierarchy" of the grammar itself. Later you can get into Chomsky. Trees are the most hierarchical way of studying a language.... – Lambie Sep 8 '16 at 13:17
  • I'd advise you to study 'general purpose traditional descriptive grammar', avoiding 'functional' and 'generative' grammar' unless you want to study linguistics at university. – BillJ Sep 8 '16 at 13:29
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    A lot depends on why you want to learn grammar, and grammatical terms. And on whether you're a native speaker or an English learner, and what kind of language background you have. Without knowing that, I wouldn't venture to suggest anything; as @Lambie suggests, there are many schools with conflicting ideologies, and matching terminologies. But those are mostly dealing with minor details or irrelevant abstractions; there are lots of commonsense ways to organize English grammatical terminology. But most of it does require some knowledge of linguistic facts instead of linguistic mythology. – John Lawler Sep 8 '16 at 15:04

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