You can tell the meaning of to dust only by the context where it is used. What do you do with Swiffer? You clean the dust. What do you do to a dresser with a bag of confetti? You can't remove dust with it. That's the way English developed over the years with contronyms because you don't need to coin or borrow other verbs as they can never cause any confusion.
There are many contronyms in English as the link indicates. To dust is one of them as it means:
To add fine particles, or to remove them
The linked Wikipedia article calls it auto-antonym:
The terms "autantonym" and "contronym" were coined by Joseph T.
Shipley in 1960 and Jack Herring in 1962, respectively. Some pairs of
contronyms are true homographs, i.e., distinct words with different
etymology which happen to have the same form. For instance cleave
"separate" is from Old English clēofan, while cleave "adhere" is from
Old English clifian, which was pronounced differently. This is related
to false friends, but false friends do not necessarily contradict.
Online Etymology Dictionary explains that "to rid of dust" comes form the noun dust which meant:
Old English dust, from Proto-Germanic *dunstaz (source also of Old
High German tunst "storm, breath," German Dunst "mist, vapor," Danish
dyst "milldust," Dutch duist), from PIE *dheu- (1) "dust, smoke,
vapor" (source also of Sanskrit dhu- "shake," Latin fumus "smoke").