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Is there a term (like "pseudo-synonym") for things that are colloquially considered opposites when in fact they are part of the same set on a higher level?

For example, "cats and dogs" are "opposites" but in reality are both quadrupedal animals. Or "apples and oranges" which are both actually fruit from trees.

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    I don't know about a single term, but I've heard the saying "we're/they're not as different as you'd/they'd like to believe". – childofsoong Jun 23 '16 at 21:16
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First, let me diagnose the error. To say that 'cats' is the opposite of 'dogs' is to confuse antonymy with collocation. Likewise for 'apples' and 'oranges.' Both children and adults commonly make this error.

I know of no conventional word for these dubious antonyms (although this page suggests there are terms for different types of antonyms). Pseudoantonym and false antonym sprang to mind. Unfortunately, these words are already in use for a different concept (see here).

You might use folk antonym, where folk means:

Relating to or originating from the beliefs and opinions of ordinary people (ODO)

This is the same way 'folk' is used in the expression folk etymology:

A popular but mistaken account of the origin of a word or phrase (ODO).

Parodying this defintion, we might define folk antonym as:

A popular but mistaken antonym of a word or phrase.

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