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  1. Is there a word for a word that someone hears often but never has learned the formal definition to and can only guess the meaning of from the contexts it has been used in? I know I've been in the position in which I've heard a word used so often I haven't consulted a dictionary and so I didn't know the real definition and would struggle every time I heard it to figure out what it means really.

  2. An offshoot of my question is: is there a word for a word that someone thinks one knows the definition to, but is actually incorrect? I've also seen this phenomenon a lot, where someone thinks he knows the definition and uses it just incorrectly enough for me to tell he doesn't really know what it means.

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This is two questions, and you shouldn't post two questions under the same post, it will just cause confusion. Anyway:

Re 2., you could call it a misapprehension, which means that you think you understand something when actually you have the wrong idea.

http://www.dictionary.com/browse/misapprehension

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