is a type of animal headgear which does not have a bit. Instead, it has a special type of noseband that works on pressure points on the face, nose, and chin. It is most commonly associated with certain styles of riding horses.
The word "hackamore" is derived from the Spanish word jáquima, meaning headstall or halter, itself derived from Old Spanish xaquima. The Spanish had obtained the term from the Arabic šakīma, (bit), from šakama (to bridle). From the Americanized pronunciation of jaquima, the spelling "hackamore" entered the written English language by 1850, not long after the Mexican-American War. (Wikipedia)
The Spanish origin of the term appears to be confirmed also by Etymonline:
- halter chiefly used for breaking horses, 1850, American English, of uncertain origin. OED and Klein suggests a corruption of Spanish jaquima (earlier xaquima) "halter, headstall of a horse,"
In the Word Origins...And How We Know Them: Etymology for Everyone Anatoly Liberman explores the possible origin from a nursery rhyme starting with "Hick-a-more, Hack-a-more", but it does not appear to be related to the meaning of "halter".
If the origin is from the Spanish terms xaquima/jaquima, how is their "americanized" promounciation possibly related to that of "hackamore"?
are there other plausible suggestions to the origin of this "unusual" term?