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I'm looking for a term to describe a person who thinks that everyone is driven by personal interest rather than by philanthropy or charity; someone who is pessimistic about people's intent (whether they're honest or the opposite).

closed as off-topic by Edwin Ashworth, Helmar, MetaEd Oct 19 '16 at 14:26

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Cynic: "a person who believes that people are motivated purely by self-interest rather than acting for honorable or unselfish reasons" (here).

The adjective is cynical.

Also, psychological egoist: someone who believes "that humans are always motivated by self-interest, even in what seem to be acts of altruism" (here).

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