I read an online article recently about psychology, which referred to a type of person who always expects bad things to happen. But rather than worrying or being unduly anxious about it, they plan ahead, in order to mitigate a future bad situation they expect might happen to them. This wasn't perceived as a negative attitude and the article gave this behaviour a description. Maybe it's well known in psychology circles or maybe it was just used in this article.
Unfortunately I cannot find the article, so I am enlisting your assistance. What we are looking for is a two word expression to describe such behaviour. It should not describe someone who is pessimistic, but rather someone who takes into account that bad things may happen and structures his life accordingly.
A similar example would be 'active defence,' which describes the behaviour of getting your retaliation in first.