How can we judge a transitive verb to be used correctly when it's in intransitive form in a sentence?
For example, are these uses of transitive verbs correct?
They will give.
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How can you judge whether the verb is used correctly? You look it up in some kind of authoritative source (such as a dictionary) to see whether the verb is:
It's a mistake to believe that a verb must be transitive or intransitive but not both.
For example, the American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (3rd edition) list both transitive and intransitive usages for each of the verbs in the three examples in the question. You need to pay attention to the part-of-speech labels. This particular dictionary uses v.tr. to indicate transitive usage and v.intr. for intransitive usage:
drink. v.tr. To take into the mouth and swallow (a liquid). v.intr. To swallow liquid.
answer. v.intr. to speak, act, or write in response to a question. v.tr. To response to.
give. v.tr. To make a present of. v.intr. To make gifts or donations.