I'm writing a journal paper and I want to find a suitable way to refer to someone who lacks formal training in a specialist field or specialist knowledge. The only example I can think of so far is "layperson". Checking this question it seems these suggestions are unsuitable for academic style. My specific usage example is as follows:
"For the operator, the extremes of suitable clinical training as opposed to '__________' will be considered."
However, I have had this problem before and would appreciate alternatives that may be a more general solution than for the specific usage above. Along with suitable academic style, another issue I'm specifically trying to avoid is being disrespectful towards the person/group I'm referring to.