Is there a specific word in English describing black boxes covering confidential data on papers being prepared for public access? Here is an example of such a paper
The word is redacted. Generally speaking, when gov't documents are released to the public, they are heavily redacted.
re·dact riˈdakt (verb) 1. edit (text) for publication. 2. censor or obscure (part of a text) for legal or security purposes.
There is no single word that fits your purpose; redaction (n.) is close, but it does not refer specifically to black marks. In general, as in law, it can mean the activity of redacting, or it can mean the resulting visible black mark, white space, cutout, or any kind of visual evidence on the page showing that text was redacted. Where it is necessary to be specific, people use descriptive words such as “black (or white) box”, “black mark”, “blackout”, or “black (or white) rectangle”. These can be used adjectivally to modify redaction and get the term you need:
(1) The driver’s address was concealed; only a black mark (or redaction, or blackout redaction) was visible.
As noted in the Wikipedia page on sanitizing classified information, redaction can be accomplished using “cover-up tape” or “redaction tape”. When these materials are used, you could add a color adjective to get the term you need:
(2) The driver’s address was concealed with black cover-up tape.
As for verbs: to sanitize means to make the document clean (in a figurative sense). To redact means to edit for publication. You might say sanitizing is redacting with a particular purpose. As with redaction, neither of these verbs specifically refer to the use of a black box. For that, common verb phrases are mark out, black out, cover up.
(3) The security officer blacked out (or marked out) the driver’s address.