In my language, Russian, there is only one variant to express the "abilty to see" in its common physiological sence.
If I have a good ability (I am born with) I say:

У меня хорошее зрение

So the noun is "зрение" [zrenie] without any alternatives.
Looking into different dictionaries, I can not find a single preferrable variant in english, there are several variants:

I have good vision/sight/eyesight

As a native english speaker, how would you say it?
Since I want to determine most common variant, please give a note on how common this or that version is.

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    Vision and eyesight are in a photo-finish, with sight a close third. – TRomano May 2 '16 at 19:22
  • The ophthalmologist or optometrist will probably talk about your vision, not your eyesight. There is also that medical/layperson difference. Forget sight here in general for talking about how well you see. A sight is usually what is seen: Paris by night is a great sight. – Lambie May 2 '16 at 20:08

In the context you are referring to of innate physiological ability, your third option is the most clear:

I have good eyesight.

Let's look at the other two options.

I have good vision.

In this case, "vision" could have an abstract meaning. A person playing a sport is sometimes said to have good "vision", as in ability to "see" (understand) the game well (and react accordingly).

To narrow this usage specifically to visual acuity, you might say "I have 20/20 vision."

I have good sight.

As a native English speaker, this feels awkward to me. The construction is correct, but I would always prefer the alternative of "eyesight" to be more specific.

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  • So "vision" is also correct? I have seen this word a lot in a phrase "impaired vision". But can you say "impaired eyesight" as well? – Mikhail V May 2 '16 at 19:34
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    Yes, "impaired vision" is clear and sounds better to my ear than "impaired eyesight." The key point is that you need another word in the sentence to indicate that you are talking about eyesight when you say "vision" (as in EJF's example where the word "glasses" in the sentence makes it clear what kind of "vision" you are talking about). – jme May 2 '16 at 20:58

"Vision" and "eyesight" would both be correct, and both could work for this context. However, like jme said in their answer, "vision" can have other meanings that don't strictly have to do with eyesight. As long as the sentence/paragraph you're using it in makes the context clear, you could still totally use it.

"I have good eyesight, so I don't need glasses."

"I have good vision, so I don't need glasses."

Mentioning the glasses makes it obvious that "vision" is referring to your eyes' physical ability to see, rather than one of the more abstract meanings.

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