I have a translation course this term and in it we review the English translation of various texts of eastern civilizations. We were stuck with translation of the opening verse of the Quran.
"In the name of God, the Beneficent, the Merciful."
the Beneficent is the equivalent of an attribute of God which roughly means that his mercy is due to all creatures. And the Merciful for a word that means his constant mercy is due to the believers. Note that in the source text both words are from the same root. One translation tried to convey this by simply using the merciful for both words and modifying it with adverbs the Entirely, the Especially [Merciful].
the problem. I want to know how does the article the modifies an adjective. I know that in general it denotes a set e.g. the blind, the poor etc., but when one use it in this form: In the name of God, the Beneficent, the Merciful how do you hear it as native speaker of English. In parenthesis I shall say that note that the first letter of the attribute is Capitalized. I'll be grateful if you could explain to me the function of the plus an adjective, not in this one particular use but various usages of this structure and comparing them. And also the capitalization the first letter.
Also if you could introduce me to a book that elaborates on this aspects and other marginal aspects of grammar I really appreciate that. Thanks in advance.