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There is an english word (adj) that refers to a type of conversation where no real real information is being conveyed but rather the speakers are establishing a connection.

A casual conversation about the weather between two speakers who don't know each other well would be an example.

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The technical term for this is phatic. From Dictionary.com:

denoting speech used to express or create an atmosphere of shared feelings, goodwill, or sociability rather than to impart information.

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Small talk is the most common label I know of.

informal, friendly conversation about unimportant subjects

Also to consider:
chitchat

friendly conversation about things that are not very important

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I'd call it polite conversation. It's difficult to find good references for this use, which is a bit idiomatic. Polite conversation can also be a literal thing, and you can find plenty of advise on how to conduct polite conversation at parties etc. The alternatives tend to be dismissive regarding the lack of heft, and there is no reason to be dismissive towards this.

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Casual, cursory, superficial, disinterested, mechanical...

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