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I am trying to figure out what part of speech the bolded words are:

Spanish is spoken in parts of South America

and,

Football is played in America.

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The form you pointed out in your question is called a past participle (of a verb). Together with the verb "to be", it forms the passive voice (Spanish is spoken...)

Past participles can function as different types of speech in the English language and it all boils down to how you define a particular type of speech. There's a great explanation of it on an older thread in this Stack Exchange: Past participle used as a noun?

There is also another thread that doesn't talk about participles but explains the viewpoints behind different types of speech which may be useful to you: What exactly is an "adverb"?

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