I came across this paragraph in a book. I am unable to understand this; What does "against the action of state" and "against state's action" in first line refer to? Aren't they both same thing? The first line seems ambiguous because of these terms. Can someone explain these terms in detail with respect to this context.
Fundamental rights are characterized as following -
- Most of them are available against the arbitrary action of the state, with a few exceptions like those against the State's action and against the action of private individuals. When the rights that are available against the State's action only are violated by the private individuals, there are no constitutional remedies but only legal remedies
Here "State" refers to any legal/non-legal entity of the country.