a finding that has shocked most observers.
Full sentence: studies have shown that X is 60 percent of Y, a finding that has shocked most observers.
What is your opinion. Isn't it that the above is a clause?
This is what I know -
An appositive noun modifier, a type of modifier that NEVER appears in spoken language but that appears on the GMAT a lot. The reason is that, unlike relative pronouns such as 'which', these modifiers don't have to touch their referent. For instance: The general tried to get his troops to retreat before being surrounded, a strategy that ultimately failed. Exceptions - If you have an appositive modifier that's an abstract noun - such as "strategy", "figure", "statistic", "findings", "situation", "change", "difference", etc. - then such an appositive may be allowed to describe the entire situation described in the previous clause. For instance, the example I gave above with "a strategy..."Also, for further examples, see #59 and #79 in the purple verbal supplement OG book.