Is there a word which refers to a state for an animal or human that is not anesthetized (or influenced by other artificial consciousness altering substances) for an academic or professional context? I am looking for a term that would make it specifically clear that there is no influence of anesthesia rather then a more ambiguous word like "conscious" or "wakeful" (the type of words I have been able to find so far).
In this context I'd recommend 'sober'.
not intoxicated or drunk.
It is often associated with abstinence of alcohol though, see http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/english/sober (Not affected by alcohol; not drunk.) so maybe there is a more appropriate term out there.
In our clinical journal articles, we would state that a procedure done without anesthesia is anesthesia free, for example an anesthesia-free dental procedure. This implies that the procedure is typically done with anesthesia, but in this instance it is not.
As for the antonym for an anesthetized patient, it would simply be an unanesthetized patient.
The Merriam-Webster Medical Dictionary has this entry:
Medical definition of unanesthetized:
not having been subjected to an anesthetic -- an unanesthetized patient
This does not really apply to sedation, which is different than anesthesia.
Sensitised sounds like the word you need.
Cause (someone or something) to respond to certain stimuli; make sensitive: