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I have two questions. The first question: What are the differences in meaning and grammar between "until you listen to me" and "until you start listening to me"?

I'm hoping that someone can help me here.

But there is another question: What are the differences between 'I'm hoping' and 'I hope'?

closed as off-topic by Dan Bron, anongoodnurse, Drew, ab2, jimm101 Mar 15 '16 at 11:22

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  • Have you tried doing an online search for the terms in question to see if anything comes up that would help you figure out what the difference is? Please include any research you did prior to asking in your question. – John Clifford Mar 14 '16 at 14:21
  • I have made some researchs, but I have found nothing about my questions, because both forms are showing that something is starting right now. I want to know where the differences in detail are. And I know that the -ing form is about doing something right now, but I don't know if the -ing form is right in combination with (to) hope here. – Matt Mar 14 '16 at 14:40
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    One question per post is the policy of Stack Exchange. Please delete one question. Also, write the full sentence and be specific about what you try to mean by the sentence. Your question is not clear. – user140086 Mar 14 '16 at 14:47
2

These are both very good questions; and they have essentially the same answer.
Everything depends on the verbs, as usual.

  • until you listen/start listening to me
  • I hope/I'm hoping that S

Listen is a sense verb. It describes a volitional human activity that can be continued indefinitely.

Predicates referring to acts or states with duration can refer to the beginning of the duration, the ending, or the time in between. Start specifically refers to the beginning, which in this case refers to a single volitional action on the part of the addressee (you). And if you start listening to me, then you listen, at least a bit, and that means the same as you listen to me. So there's no difference in meaning, in either case. Rather, the two constructions get to the same place by different routes.

Hope is an emotional verb, a human emotional state that can be continued indefinitely.

The Progressive construction (a form of be followed by the -ing form of the next verb in the chain)
is normally not used with stative predicates, since they are already continuous, and the purpose of the Progressive is to add continuity to a static event description. Thus,

  • He is renting a house in Ypsilanti. (grammatical, since rent is active)
  • *He is owning a house in Ypsilanti. (ungrammatical, since own is stative)

But emotions, while continuous, can change in degree, and emotional predicates used in the Progressive therefore refer to the constancy of the emotion.

In both I'm hoping and I hope, I'm in a hoping state, so there's that same effect again.
Basically, I'm hoping means 'I still hope'.

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