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Preface: I first encountered the following on p 83, Philosophy: A Complete Introduction (2012) by Prof Sharon Kaye (MA PhD in Philosophy, U. Toronto). I already tried, but do not see a modern paraphrase by, Early Modern Texts.
Source: Of Liberty and Necessity (1654), § 30, by Thomas Hobbes

§ 30.  [...]  [1.] So that whereas it is out of controversy that of voluntary actions the will is the necessary cause, and [2.] by this which [3.] is said the will is also caused by other things whereof [4.] it disposes not, it follows that voluntary actions have all of them necessary causes and therefore are necessitated.

  1. How do you parse by this which? Is this one Constituent (Prepositional Phrase) with by as the head? Or are these two Constituents: 1 Prepositional Phrase by this + 1 Relative Pronoun which?

  2. What is the subject of is said? I am inferring that (the entire subordinate clause) 1; but even in 1600s English syntax, did [3.] not need a dummy pronoun 'it', because Subordinate Clauses cannot themselves say anything?

  3. Please advise if my interpretation of 4 is incorrect: 'the will arranges/controls/resolves'.

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Hobbes famously said that the life of man in his natural state was "nasty, brutish, and short", which pretty much describes his prose except for the short part. I think you may have to start one sentence before your quote:

[0.] when first a man has an appetite or will to something, to which immediately before he had no appetite nor will, the cause of his will is not the will itself, but something else not in his own disposing.

So [0.] says that sometimes your will to do something is motivated not by your spontaneous wish to do it, but by outside factors not in your own disposing, i.e, not under your control.

[1.] says that whereas (that is, in contrast to the case that) voluntary actions may be founded in the will itself, we have [2.], the case that the will is caused by things beyond its immediate control (i.e., that it disposes not).

I interpret

by this which is said the will is also caused ...

to mean

what by this is said that the will is also caused ...

The antecedent of this is [0.]

I think you've inserted [4.] at the wrong place. It's

the will is also caused by other things whereof it disposes not, [4.] it follows that voluntary actions have all of them necessary causes and therefore are necessitated.

That is, the will can be its own cause or it also could be caused by things it doesn't control. Those things have their own causes, and so on backwards as far as we want. This backward chain of necessary causes gives us a deterministic view of events, but this is still compatible with the operation of our will, which is where Hobbes wants to arrive.

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