See this youtube video at 17:18, the lady said that:

  • for the stops, we can't prolong the sound

  • for the continuants, we can prolong the sound as long as we still have air in our lungs.

So, my question is that:

Could you list all stops & continuants?

Here is what I think:

Stops: /p/, /b/, /t/, /d/, /k/, /g/

Continuants: all fricatives (f, v, θ, ð, s, z, ʃ, ʒ, h); all nasal (m, n, ŋ); all liquids (l, r); all glide (w,j)

So there are 2 lefts, the affricates (tʃ & dʒ): I don't know whether they are Stops or Continuants

Could you list all stops & continuants?

  • 3
    From Linguistics: An Introduction Affricates are an intriguing case, because in their articulation they start out as plosives and then turn into fricatives. A convenient way of notating this is to use both specifications for [continuant] and to label them [—/+continuant]. – FumbleFingers Mar 5 '16 at 14:23
  • 2
    @FumbleFingers: to explain the notation, [−/+continuant] means they start out as a stop (so −continuant) and turn into a fricative (so +continuant). – Peter Shor Mar 5 '16 at 14:58
  • @Peter: I just watched Patrick Winston - Learning: Sparse Spaces, Phonology a couple of nights ago. Fascinating stuff all round, but what I particularly took heart from was that even he had to stop and think several times when deciding whether to tick the voiced and continuant columns for a couple of phonemes. But until you just pointed it out, I hadn't actually realised that of course —/+ above represents the true temporal sequence (minus then plus, as opposed to the standard notation +/— = plus or minus). – FumbleFingers Mar 5 '16 at 16:51
  • As the IPA shows, the affricates are meldings of a stop and a fricative, so they start as stops, but can be continued. – AmI Mar 5 '16 at 20:49

Nasals are technically stops as the air is prevented from leaving through the oral cavity by a blockage and forced to leave through the nasal cavity instead. The full term for them is nasal stops. However, because all English nasals are stops, we usually call them nasals for short.

Affricates can be thought of as having both stop and continuant features.

  • Yes, and the reason for treating the nasal consonants as stops in phonology is that they act like stops in phonetic processes. For instance, in many dialects, p/t/k become glottal stop before stops at the same place of articulation, and e.g., p in "pop bottle" or "Lippman" can be replaced by glottal stop. Using SPE features, the stops are referred to as non-continuants. – Greg Lee Mar 5 '16 at 15:42
  • are you sure, here, they say m, n are continuants google.com/… – Tom Mar 5 '16 at 23:27
  • @Tom Yes, that def is definitely wrong :( See here, for example. – Araucaria Mar 6 '16 at 0:24
  • @Tom Or here in this famous book – Araucaria Mar 6 '16 at 0:26

protected by Mitch Mar 17 '17 at 18:43

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