"Rail against" is a near antonym, since it means, as a phrase, to negatively discuss something at length. It's used for unthinking attacks, sometimes, but that's not the proper meaning. It does, however, convey emotion.
"X railed against y, discussing their parentage and mental status in great detail along with a list of charges against their politics."
A single word could be "condemn" for the idea of arguing against a thing, or "dismiss" if the opposite of praising and detail is desired.
If you want to convey someone attacking a position with words, combative or medical language is often employed. "He attacked the opposing council with surgical precision, destroying every point made." et cetera.
Decry would be good for denoting a condemnation.
A fair critique would offer advantages and disadvantages, both. In some cases, that could avoid needing to explain the balance.
When attempting to explain a discussion of an idea as fair and dispassionate, I usually modify "critique", "argue", "argument", "discuss", or "reasons" rather than use something like "consider/expound the disadvantages", but that's a direction to go. These tend to be neutral, but that means you can apply these to advantages or to disadvantages:
"Ennumerate" implies a certain emotional distance and at least an attempt at thoroughness. Literally means to number a thing.
"Expound" denotes an explanation of a thing. If you expound the flaws, you, therefore, explain them.
"Describe" or "discuss" can work if you want to mention why it has the traits that it does. "Consider" could serve, too.
"Detail" as a verb, is probably the strongest neutral term for describing traits. "Detailing the faults" would clearly convey a completeness and, without other modification, implies reason.
As to terms to move from neutral to negative: disadvantages, flaws, vices, problems, issues, penalty, demerit.
Results, consequences, effects all remain neutral.
Advantages, feature, virtue, merit, upshot, bonus are positive.
Assemble as needed.