I think the fact that you have a compound word (throughput) within the structure confuses things. I'll use another example to clarify the rule* then we go back to this
*it's not a "rule" strictly speaking, since - as you yourself realized through Google Scholar texts - there are many approaches.
Let's take the example
sparkling white wall versus
The hyphen is used when
sparkling-white is used as an adjective for wall (in other words, we mean that the color/shade of the wall is not merely "white", but "sparkling white". Without the hyphen you would essentially have two adjectives,
white - i.e. "the wall is sparkling and the wall is white". It's subtle, I know.
On your example, it depends on whether you use the word as an adjective or noun. Here are two examples to demonstrate:
I have noticed a high throughput in the production line
I have noticed a high-throughput result in the production line