What is a term or name for someone who is very adept at solving puzzles or situations that require though processing and logic?
I'm looking for something that could be applied on a broader sense.
Normally I do not comment on other answers but, however novel the word Enigmatologist is. It is not included in many dictionaries and is not an approved word in those it does appear in. Also it does not answer the question, only part of it.
The word that can be applied in a broader sense is problem-solver It is rather mundane but it does cross the t's as well as dot the i's
problem-solving; noun; Cambridge English Dictionary; the process of finding solutions to problems:
problem-solver; noun; Cambridge English Dictionary
example; He is considered a troubleshooter and a problem-solver.