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I would like to know which comparative is correct when saying something like the following.

The maximum size of a message is 150 words. Please send a [smaller|shorter] message.

Thank you very much.

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    Hello, borting. Logic would strongly suggest 'smaller', but 'shorter' is more idiomatic (even when smaller font-size may result in the message filling less of your screen). How many Google hits for "shorter message" and "smaller message" do you get? What do these Google Ngrams suggest? – Edwin Ashworth Feb 9 '16 at 11:41
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Small means "little in size", hence smaller means "littler in size".

Short means "having little length", hence shorter means "littler in length".

I would hence suggest that there are two logical options for you:

  1. The maximum size of a message is 150 words. Please send a smaller message.

  2. The maximum length of a message is 150 words. Please send a shorter message.

The second sounds much more natural to me. In my experience, messages have their length measured, not their size.

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