I am helping two students with their English. They asked me why there is -ed at the end of some words in the simple present tense, e.g.

Are you married?

He is annoyed.

I am worried.

I wasn't sure how to answer this.

  • 4
    Those are not past-tense verbforms but past participles which have achieved an existence as adjectives independent of their verbal origins. Jan 21, 2016 at 0:10
  • 1
    Can be done with almost all transitive verbs (though some are nonsensical): he is bought, he is brought, he is given, he is left, he is offered, he is owed, he is passed, he is paid.
    – Hot Licks
    Jan 21, 2016 at 0:46
  • 2
    The general rule for them is that the adjective refers to being in the state that results from the action taking place in the past. So after you marry someone, you are married. After something annoys you, you're annoyed.
    – Barmar
    Jan 21, 2016 at 1:28
  • 1
    Welcome to EL&U. I'd like to advise you to visit our sister site English Language Learners, but please make sure you take the tour and visit their Help Center before posting any question.
    – user140086
    Jan 21, 2016 at 3:43

1 Answer 1


Those are adjectives and not verbs, in your cases. Many -ed past participles can also be used as adjectives.

married, severed, disembodied, averted, worried, shocked, injured, vandalized, greyed out, redacted, censored, pampered, allied, contrived,

and so on.


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